How do cardinality constraints and participation constraints relate to the notions of total and partial participation?

QUESTION:

How do cardinality constraints and participation constraints relate to the notions of total and partial participation?

ANSWER:

A cardinality constraint has nothing to do with the notions of total and partial participation. Partial participation occurs if an entity type can exist without participation in a relationship, whereas total participation requires that an entity type must participate in the relationship in order to exist.

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