# One way to extract silver from acanthite and argentite, both have silver sulfide as the main component of each ore, is by reduction with lead.

**QUESTION:**

One way to extract silver from acanthite and argentite, both have silver sulfide as the main component of each ore, is by reduction with lead. The first process involves extracting and purifying silver sulfide from its ore. The second process is extracting and purifying lead from its ore, mainly galena, cerussite, and anglesite.

PYROLYSIS: The first step in purifying lead is to extract litharge, lead (II) oxide, from all the lead ore by heating the crushed ore at high temperature under argon (oxygen absent) environment.

PbS + PbCO3 + PbSO4 ∆→ PbO + CO2 + CO2

CARBOTHERMAL REDUCTION: All the litharge from the previous step is converted to metallic lead by reduction w carbon under high temperature and oxygen-free environment.

PbO + C ∆→ Pb + CO

ROASTING: Both acanthite and argentite are roasted in a stoichiometric amount of air, resulting in the oxide.

Ag2S+ O2 ∆→ Ag20 + SOz

LEAD REDUCTION: Some of the resulting silver oxide from the previous step will be Silver oxide from the previous step will be reduced to silver metal and the lead will be oxidized back to litharge.

Ag2O + Pb ∆→ PbO + Ag

SULFUR RECOVERY: Sulfur dioxide will degrade the environment if untreated. Therefore, it will be passant if untreated. Therefore, it will be passed first to the superheated air to oxidize the dioxide to trioxide. Then, the trioxide form will be scrubbed with water to P grade sulphuric acid.

SO2 + O2 + H2O ∆→ H2SO4

If the following are the given:

(a) The percent yield of silver is the ratio of the sum of the class number of all the students whose names are written on this paper to the sum of all the class number of all students in the section.

(b) Percent excess carbon is the ratio of the sum of all the digits of the student number of all the students whose names are written on the top of this paper to the sum of the class number of all the students whose names are written on this paper.

(c) The mass ratio of sulphuric acid to silver in the product is the ratio of the sum of all the class number of all students section to the sum of all the digits of the student number of all the students whose names are written on the paper.

**Calculate the following:**

(a) Percent composition of the lead-silver ore composed of argentite, galena, cerussite, and anglesite.

(b) Percent composition of all the products after the whole process.

(c) The mass ratio of silver produced to the lead-silver ore.

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